Sunday, July 31, 2011

The Demoiselle Airplane

!±8± The Demoiselle Airplane

The Demoiselle, a small monoplane fragile apparently incapable of a pilot, reflects not only the same man who designed it short, but the long line of lighter than air craft, which had preceded it. The designer, five feet, four inches had spent 110-pound Alberto Santos-Dumont, who had hailed from Brazil, most of his life in France, where the first successful balloon ascent in the world by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783 and an event that may have unknowinglyreplaced its related experiments.

Unlike fixed or rotary wing aircraft, the science of aerodynamics to deal elevator, the elevator balloons floating from the beginning.

The air is compressible, ie, their weight compresses. The fund's position in the atmosphere, the air and then the weight is about making it closer or near the bottom. On the contrary, as it increases, it becomes thinner.

Balloons take advantage of these changing conditionsto achieve lift. Heated air or lighter than air gas, a balloon envelope, which causes the ball to collect themselves, because the internal air is less dense than the surrounding air. When you hear the height where the density means that indoor air has reached the surrounding air to rise and reached a state of balance within and without, that is, its internal gas density corresponds to the density of external gas.

At this point the same pressure on the balloonupward pressure on the ball. Balloons are "balloon", because their lift is made in still air mass, ie a mass of air is not moving. A plane moves vertically, but is based on existing wind speed and direction for the horizontal movement. So it can not be relied upon specific directions of transport.

Balloon controlled movement employ one or more propellers for speed and direction, and called "blimps", but these propellersnot to extend or lift.

Santos-Dumont had, even at a young age, she decided to have a profound effect on people with his life, but had yet to determine the means. However, a fascination with flight, generally, and balloons, in particular, just to continue, which makes its lack of focus on governance and leads him to believe that their non-profit, the wind direction could be determined with pre- replaced.

Only after his first aerial photographsThe progress in a 40-meter diameter balloon in the fall of 1897, concluded that the aircraft had been his life calling.

Trying to tame the uncontrollable factor, has designed an airship with "Santos-Dumont No. 1." Equipped with an elongated, cigar-shaped balloon, which had 6454 cubic meters of 450 pound load capacity, was an internal combustion engine, driving a 6.6 meter diameter propeller driven during the proposed speed a vogue AugmentedDirection and two heavy bags suspended ball weight at the front and rear, for the future, replacing the heavier aircraft elevators, making the pitch control. The pilot has turned into a basket and rope guard personnel on the ground the airship in and out of his position as anchor host for maneuver.

First flight September 18, 1898 in Paris, she gently collided with trees on the opposite side of the field from which it was thrown out due to insufficient distance, climbs in the higherRowing controllability her, but after two days of repair, shows proven, Santos-Dumont asked is provided. The ball lifting the engine and propellers for propulsion, steering to change direction and budget of ballast by step: draw circles and eight in the sky, the number 1 all the elements necessary to integrate the triumph over gravity.

The success, Santos-Dumont No. 2 carried out a larger bag, of which ten percent increase in the amount of gasled to a 44-pound lifting more.

To succeed, No. 3, a longevity record of 23 hours continuous antenna arrived home, built in a hangar with Santos-Dumont 36 meters in height, the doors at Saint-Cloud, near Paris.

On October 19, 1901, won the prize of 100,000 francs Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe, a founding member of the Aero Club of Paris, by circling the Eiffel Tower and the return to the takeoff point 30 minutes later, he offered in his n. 6Design, a 108 meters long with an airship propeller mounted aft.

Despite these successes, however, soon turned to heavier than air flight. The fulfillment of a promise by Samuel Pierpont Langley, the curator of the Smithsonian, in vain their designs "Aerodrome" was from a catapult launched on the Potomac River to begin experimenting with this area of ​​the hub and prove his reputation after suspected sabotage once again had no cuts in its 7 ball carried and was excludedentry into the St. Louis Aero Club competition for a $ 100,000 prize pool, has designed a helpless, pontoon-equipped plane monoplane in Paris. No. 11 was designated, they moved fast boat, so flying over the water surface, while the next 12, a dual-wing aircraft, rotating propellers, do not fly in the air because there was not enough for vertical flight technology developed during this century.

The No. 14-up, however - albeit with a small contributionaerodynamic development - both fame and success because of the continental absolute lack of technological capabilities of existing competition. Santos-Dumont and jointly by Voisin, 25, an engineer, who on his visor, which was heavier than air craft and share his knowledge of them designed by Santos-Dumont in the winter of 1905-1906, was a 40 - Fixed-foot-long aircraft with 33 meters, cellular box kite wing piano wires and braces and jaw with dihedral extreme, a long,covered fuselage, a single, portable, box-set of cells combined length and pitch, forward canard and a 24 horsepower, engine low-wing aircraft attacked Antoinette, a large, paddle blade, pusher-propeller operation. It 'was then a 50-hp engine and retrofit octagonal ailerons. Control can only be done by a standing pilot. Because there have been flight tested initially suspended from the blimp No 14, has had the "14-bis" assumed name, but had its canard configurationdeserves the "Bird of Prey" title by the press.

He won the Archdeacon prize at October 23, 1906 for a flight of 25 meters and the 1,500 French francs Aero Club Award for a 100-meter coverage of 12 November, the latter recognized as the first in Europe, has been sustained and heavier air of triumph, and, for some time, probably the world because of the secret of the Wright brothers' experiments without papers.

After four in the middle, but without success, they are heavier than airDevelopments, applied Santos-Dumont, who has always made his signature, blimp-based design philosophy for its next development wing, is to employ the smallest unit possible, the place for him in a sport plane, similar to a antenna can produce customized cars.

The result of the project, the No 19 was a small tractor monoplane, whose "body" was made of bamboo and covered with the cloth-covered wings, spanning 16.5 meters, has maintained a very pronounced V-shapeinserted by No. 14-up. A two-cylinder, 20-hp Dutheil-Chalmers engine, above the pilot on the wing semi-point-mounted, provided that the power was in full rudder combined and integrated with two sides, under the wing and control surfaces future, canard lift, which extends also in view of the structure. The ailerons and wing-warping mechanism, no planes, unable by its very nature, are controlled by its transverse axis, made three short trips to the end of 1907, the longest of which was200 meters before they are damaged and withdrawn from further examination. However, if the aircraft is the basis for the final, the number 20 which will also be used as Santos-Dumont, the last one.

Maintaining the simplicity of design minimally No 19, but the elimination of defects, present the plan, three-boom, bamboo frame, his first, which extends from the end towards the tail, the second under the wing of the third wheel and axle From this point ofCode, secured with steel joints.

The rectangular, clear peaks, high wing, with a span of 18 meters, a width of 6.35 meters, with a 2.7:1 aspect ratio and a 113 square feet of space was with a double layer of silk, covered by tense bamboo ribs and assembled as a feature of his cell earlier, with a pronounced dihedral angle. A section along the front edge, which is one third of durability, ease of installation and the propeller, but reduced ropeand along this path.

A vertical and horizontal, fan-shaped surface, swung on a universal joint on the frame of the triangle meeting place than serve his tail shape and height respectively given yaw and longitudinal control, the rudder, even for a 21 square meters area.

A 30 hp, twin-cylinder, boxer shorts, water-cooled Darracq motor is mounted, such as No 19, above the pilot, led by a 6.9 meter diameter, two feet away, two shovels ChauviereProp at 1,400 revolutions per minute. The two valves of the cylinders were operated by pushrods and rocker arms driven by two eccentrics. Its magnet was set at an angle to the top of the casing, while gasoline and oil tank were exposed beneath it, a tank-submerged pump lubricating fluid distribution.

The aircraft was powered by an alternative-Bayard Clement Panhard engines.

Maneuver on the ground was hit by two tire mounted rigidlyTyres and one small skid on the back.

The pilot who ejected from a strip of canvas over the frame under the engine was rocking like the Curtiss Model D, a virtual extension of the cell and the seat was too small, 120-pound small operator. Longitudinal control was by a right-wing tip elevator control stick, a cut-off blip the engine to induce departures, has been maintained. Vertical control was completed by the left, the rudder deflection,while the control side was a lever located behind the pilot and a vertical grip on the back pocket of a jacket stitched special flight, in fact reached the point of attack by making the body a "third hand". His manager, activation, such as the creation of many pioneering aircraft as the wing-warping mechanism pending bust, changed the 'angle of incidence due to air transfer. A foot-clip on the driver's left foot has published a suspension cable for changePropeller revolutions per minute.

First in France in March 1909, a year place and who presented bred monoplane similar, but larger Bleriot XI, the elegant, beautiful aircraft, with a 330 - to 370 pounds of gross weight, as a dragonfly or a young woman, because of its translucent, silk-covered wings and was then called "Demoiselle" in French. It 'was the first air sports in the world.

Share the dihedral of the wing and extreme low center of gravity emulates the pendulumNo.14-up with his predecessor and No 19, was only on the characteristics of design in static, nor benefit to the air. These are not to exist, however, the plane is so prone to vibration increasingly destabilizing, which has flown over pitching and rocking. However, as the plane first light, the Agency has married Santos-Dumont's lighter than air experience with an internal combustion engine in a very low eight, wing-structure. With an averageMaximum level flight speed of 52 mph, it produced 12 pounds per horsepower 3.1 pounds and lift big square piano, even though he had reached a top speed of 55.8 mph, and in September of 1909 had a maximum distance of 11 miles in 16 minutes.

Emulating the success of simultaneous Bleriot XI was the first plane and only the Demoiselle Santos-Dumont played, and Clement-Bayard in large numbers, for example, a Paris-car manufacturer with about 300 built30 hp motor cars and sold them at $ 1,250 each, while the aircraft could be purchased in Chicago for $ 250 without engine by the Hamilton Manufacturing Company Aero for $ 1,000. In France, a flight school founded by Santos-Dumont Demoiselle, and occasionally also boasted as one of the instructors, and in 1911 the magazine Popular Mechanics has published his drawings and assembly instructions. Also like the Bleriot XI, the day it was installed in a lot of privateQuantity.

January 4, 1910 during a flight, crashed into the Demoiselle, for an account, because of "a tension wire snapped." Although Santos-Dumont had suffered non-life threatening injuries, his emotional state was affected more precarious. Through him was his final project of the Demoiselle, and January 4 served as his last flight as a pilot, the 36 years, Pioneer said it has reached its life, unfortunately, the goals with him.

Always ready on the development andPromotion of aviation for the transport and social and economic development, was emotionally destructive for the role it had played during the First World War and he is vehemently against shock. Tormented by the large number of lives lost prematurely because of his invention, he finally ended his life 22 years later, July 23, 1932, in Brazil, with his life's work, paradoxically, the self-proclaimed goal of humanity deeply impressed by his inventions reachedin both positive and negative ways.

The lady at the Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome collection is a replica, built by Cole Palen in 1950, when his parents 'home', Red Oaks Mill, the idea came from the same time and at the same built Curtiss Model D

The example of Rhinebeck, the last renovation was in the middle of 1990 occurred when Dan Taylor, a pioneer in Rhinebeck pilot had tried to make it more representative of the original No. 20Demoiselle and which has a 30-hp two-cylinder, air-cooled aircraft engines from Detroit in 1909, of those who had driven US-backed constructed cells. Tino Paul Savas, a mechanic and welder training, is developing a version suitable for aircraft capable of its workforce without overstressing bamboo construction support.

Suspended from the ceiling of New York's Jacob Javits Center during the July 2002 New York jewelry, watches and watch the show, are the two old monoplaneRhinebeck and Alberto Santos-Dumont, Louis Cartier was the connection nearly 100 years earlier, when he handsfree wristwatch for him after learning that the blimp was a pilot not being able to send control, and simultaneously monitor the time his Hunter pocket watch is designed, forged during his circumnavigation of the famous Eiffel Tower in the English pursuit of the prize.

Today the plane Rhinebeck Aerodrome Old Aircraft Hangar Pioneer displays, one of the fourBuildings on the airfield located on a hill.

The Demoiselle Airplane

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